Normally you can only vote thirty times but you gain up to ten extra votes by voting on questions rather than answers.
Everyone gets a total of 30 votes.
You may get up to 10 extra question votes.
Warnings remain simple... (5 votes remaining, 4 votes remaining...)
Question votes may be cast at any time during the day. However, once ...
As JNat says, there are some badges that aren't trackable:
Favorite Question Question favorited by 25 users
Stellar Question Question favorited by 100 users
Popular Question Question with 1,000 views
Notable Question Question with 2,500 views
Famous Question Question with 10,000 views
Tumbleweed Asked a question with [...] low ...
(I hope you don't mind me answering in English...)
You can click on the 'Inquisitive' label in your profile, and the popup shows that while you did satisfy the requirement to ask a positively received question on at least 30 days, you still need a so-called 'positive question record':
The FAQ tells what that means:
In order to qualify for any of these ...